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lumbar disc
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Lumbar disc and new methods of lumbar disc treatment
 

 

 

Lumbar disc

Figure 1 - The structure of the spine, including the lumbar disc, shows the intervertebral nerves of the lumbar
vertebrae. 

What is a lumbar disc?

The lumbar disc is structurally like a car wheel. In order for us to be able to perform various movements throughout our lives, our spine is not made seamlessly, but is made up of pieces that are connected like beads. These bone fragments are called vertebral bodies, and the parts that connect these bones are called discs. As we know, car wheels have an external tire, which is usually a harder material and is called a tire. Inside there is a soft rubber called a tube. High-pressure air enters inside it. The lumbar disc is made up of two parts. The outer part, which is stronger and made of 32 layers, is called a ring or annulus fibrosus, and inside the ring of the disc there is a gelatinous structure called the disc nucleus or nucleus pulposus.

Our back is made of 5 bony vertebrae. Between the vertebrae are cartilaginous structures called lumbar discs (Figure 1).

At what age is lumbar disc disease or rupture seen?

Lumbar disc disease is  a disease of middle-aged people, meaning that the most common age of lumbar disc disease is in the third and fourth decades (between 30 and 40 years old). In many cases, the patient has back or lower back pain for months or even years, and usually improves with medication  . In one of these attacks, back pain becomes very severe and no longer responds to medical treatment .

 

 

Lumbar disc nerve roots

Figure 2 shows the nerve roots that protrude from the holes in the spine
and form the sciatic nerve in the buttocks. 

What is the function of the lumbar disc?

1- It allows us to bend and rotate back and forth and left and right. In fact, the disc is a living bearing.

2- Like a shock absorber, it takes the blows to the spine, so we walk evenly.

3- When lifting heavy objects, pressure is applied to the disc which is a compressible structure, as a result of which the nuts that are not compressible are protected from fracture.

4- Each disc acts like small levers in the movements of the spine and makes it possible for us to lift heavy objects. 

How many parts is the disk made of?

The disk is made of two parts. One ring disc annulus fibrosus annulus fibrosus  and the nucleus accumbens Pvlpvzvs disk Nucleus Pulposus  called. 

The disc ring is made of several intertwined layers of collagen (like a car tire).

 

 

Multiple sections of lumbar disc

Figure 3 - The disk is made of two parts of the disk core and the disk ring.
The core of the disc is gelatinous and the disc ring is intertwined with 16 layers like an onion.
Behind the disc is the intervertebral foramen and the nerve roots.  

Where is the lumbar disc?

The discs are actually living bearings that are placed between our vertebrae, allowing us to bend forward and backward and sideways or to be able to rotate. In fact, lumbar discs are the distance between the vertebrae. In terms of material and type, the disc is a type of cartilage. The disc is structurally made of a ring and a core, just like a car tire that has a flat tire and another tire that sits around it. So in our waist, which has 5 vertebrae with five discs between them.

Lumbar disc diagnosis

Lumbar discs are present in everyone, but people mean I have a lumbar disc, meaning their lumbar disc is torn or defective. There are several ways to diagnose lumbar disc disease: The most important is the patient's history. In lumbar disc disease, a severe pain usually appears suddenly in the back or back of the patient. It is usually unilateral and can sometimes be bilateral. The patient may have a history of vague back pain in the past, but suddenly develops a very severe back or leg pain. Lumbar disc pain is usually in the sciatic nerve . It is a pain that starts in the lower back and spreads into the pelvis, back of the thigh, and then the back of the leg. The second way to diagnose lumbar disc pain is to examine the patient. The doctor causes pain or aggravates the patient by raising the patient's leg during the examination. Finally to prove the diagnosisRupture or disease of the lumbar disc We can use MRI , which shows the lumbar disc completely, as well as the type of disc disease, its extent and rupture, as well as the location of the lumbar disc protrusion . In addition, nerve and muscle tape can be   used to prove lumbar disc rupture and diagnose lumbar disc pain.

What are the symptoms of lumbar disc disease?

Symptoms of lumbar disc disease are divided into several categories. 1- Back pain 2- Lower limb pain which is called sciatic pain 3- Sensory neurological symptoms such as tingling and burning and drowsiness of all lower limbs or numbness in part of lower limbs 4- Movement disorders such as weakness Lower limb muscles 5. Horsetail syndrome in which all the lower limbs become paralyzed and a person develops incontinence or inability to urinate.

 

 

 

Types of lumbar disc disease

 

 

 

Leg nerves (obturator nerve, femoral nerve and sciatic nerve) and lumbar disc symptoms

 

 

 

Types of lumbar disc disease

شکل6- انواع  بیماری دیسک شامل ساییدگی  یا دژنراسیون دیسک،
برجستگی دیسک (Disc bulging )فتق یا پارگی دیسک کمری (Herniated disc )
کاهش ارتفاع دیسکی و پیدایش زواید استخوانی را نشان می دهد. 

پارگی دیسک کمر چگونه اتفاق می افتد ؟

دیسک کمر در اثر حرکت های متناوبی که در بدن انسان به وجود می آید و به تدریج  فرسوده می شود زیرا به طور متوسط کمر انسان در هر روز هشت هزار بار حرکت می کند و همین باعث به وجود آمدن ترک های ظریف در داخل دیسک می شود. معمولاً در بدن انسان ترکهای دیسک همیشه بوجود می آید و بتدریج جوش می خورد. می توان گفت که دیسک خاصیت خود ترمیمی دارد. معمولا ترک های کوچک دیسک علامتی ایجاد نمی کنند. اما در بعضی از افراد که زمینه‌های ژنتیکی دارند ، این ترک های کوچک ، جوش نمی خورند و بزرگتر شده و گاهی به هم می پیوندند و باعث ایجاد یک شکاف بزرگ در حلقه دیسک می شود. همانطور که در عکس پارگی دیسک کمر ملاحظه می فرمائید ، در یک حرکت ناگهانی هسته دیسک این شکاف را گشاد تر کرده و از مرکز دیسک وارد شکاف ایجاد شده می شود به این ترتیب فرد دچار پارگی دیسک کمر یا فتق دیسک کمر می شود. بنابراین بیماری های دیسک کمر یک بیماری مکانیکی است که در اثر حرکت ایجاد می شود و علائم آن نیز مکانیکی است یعنی با حرکت  کمر درد بیشتر می شود.

 

 

 

Photo of lumbar disc rupture and treatment of lumbar disc

 

 

 
Peripheral nerve tumors can be treated in several ways: If the tumor is small and has not caused many symptoms, you can wait and see the patient. In other cases, surgery is needed to remove the tumor. If the tumor is malignant, chemotherapy and radiotherapy should be started for the patient. 
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